What is Turning? Process and Operation

What is Turning?

What is Turning?

Turning is a machining procedure where a cutting tool typically a non-rotary bit is moved more or less linearly as the workpiece is rotated.

“Turning” or “turning” is typically reserved for the construction of external surfaces with this cutting motion, however, the exact cutting process is also known by the name of “boring” when it is applied on internal surfaces.

Therefore, the expression “turning or boring” is a classification of the wider category of lathing techniques. Cutting faces from a workpiece using a boring or turning tool is referred to as “facing,” and it is classed as an element within either of the categories.

Turning can be performed manually, either on a conventional lathe which typically requires constant supervision by the operator, or an automated lathe which isn’t. Nowadays, the most popular kind of automation involves computer numerical control or CNC.

The material (e.g. plastic, metal, wood, or even stone) is rotated as cutting tools move in two or three axes to produce precise dimensions and depths. The turning process can be carried out from the inside or the outside of the cylindrical (also called drilling) to create tubular parts with various geometries.

The turning process is typically carried out using a lathe, which is the most dated machine tool. It is different types of lathes including the straight turn, taper turning profiling, and external grinding.

Different shapes of material including conical, straight, or grooved workpieces are possible to create through this process of turning. Single-point cutting is the most common method employed when turning. Every material group for a workpiece has an ideal set of angles that have been refined over time.

Turning Process

Turning is a kind of machining that uses the removal of material to produce rotary parts by cutting off unnecessary material. A lathe or turning machine as well as a workpiece, fixture, and cutting device are necessary for turning.

A workpiece can be described as a piece of material attached to the fixture that is then connected to the machine, and then rotated at high speeds. The cutter is usually an instrument that cuts with a single point that is secured to the machine, however, multi-point tools are employed in certain processes.

The cutting tool feeds the workpiece rotating and cutting away the material in the form of tiny chips to form an ideal shape.

The process of turning is employed to produce circular, generally, axis-symmetric pieces that have a variety of features, including grooves, holes, thread tapers, various dimensions of steps, and even smooth surfaces. The parts made by turning typically include parts that are made in small amounts or to test prototypes, like customized shafts, fasteners, and even tapers.

The process of turning is often utilized as a second step to improve or add characteristics of parts made using a different technique. Turning is a great way to add high-precision rotational features to an item whose primary design has already been created because of its superior precision and tolerances as well as the surface finish.

Turning Operations

The most commonly used lathe operation for machining is turning. A cutting tool takes material from the outside diameter of a workpiece rotating when it is turning. The main purpose of turning is to decrease the size of the workpiece to its desired size. Turning operations can be classified into two kinds of operations: finish and rough.

During the process, there is a myriad of processes that can be carried out on the workpiece to get the desired design of the part. The operations can be either internal or external.

The external operations change the piece’s outer diameter, while inner operations modify the inner diameter. The kind of cutter employed and the route it uses to take material off the workpiece are the basis for the subsequent operations.


In machining processes, The various shapes, angles, and dimensions of a single point cutter are connected to the resultant surface of the workpiece. Angles like the rake angle, side rake angle cutting edge angle relief angle, and nose radius are all present and may differ in the workpiece.

Single-point cutting instruments come in various shapes, including V-shaped as well as square. When in use, a tool holder is typically employed to hold the cutting tool in its place.

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